Mac OS X deployment
This page explains how to deploy GStreamer along your application. There are different mechanisms, which have been reviewed in Deploying your application. The details for some of the mechanisms are given here, and more options might be added to this documentation in the future.
**FIXME: PackageMaker is dead we need a new solution **
This is the easiest way to deploy GStreamer, although most of the time it installs unnecessary files which grow the size of the installer and the target drive free space requirements. Since GStreamer might be shared among all applications that use it, though, the extra space requirements are somewhat blurred.
With PackageMaker, simply add GStreamer **runtime ** disk image
(the same one you used to install the runtime in your development
machine) inside your installer
package and create a post-install script that mounts the disk image and
installs GStreamer package. You can use the following example, where you
$INSTALL_PATH with the path where your installer copied
GStreamer's disk image files (the
/tmp directory is good place to
install it as it will be removed at the end of the installation):
hdiutil attach $INSTALL_PATH/gstreamer-1.0-1.8.1-x86_64-packages.dmg cd /Volumes/gstreamer-1.0-1.8.1-x86_64/ installer -pkg gstreamer-1.0-1.8.1-x86_64.pkg -target "/" hdiutil detach /Volumes/gstreamer-1.0-1.8.1-x86_64/ rm $INSTALL_PATH/gstreamer-1.0-1.8.1-x86_64-packages.dmg
Private deployment of GStreamer
You can decide to distribute a private copy of GStreamer with your application, although it's not the recommended method. In this case, simply copy the framework to the application's Frameworks folder as defined in the bundle programming guide:
cp -r /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework ~/MyApp.app/Contents/Frameworks
Note that you can have several versions of GStreamer, and targeting
different architectures, installed in the system. Make sure you only
copy the version you need and that you update accordingly the link
$ ls -l Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Version/Current lrwxr-xr-x 1 fluendo staff 21 Jun 5 18:46 Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/Current -> ../Versions/0.10/x86
Since GStreamer will be relocated, you will need to follow the instructions on how to relocate GStreamer at the end of this page.
Deploy only necessary files, by manually picking them
On the other side of the spectrum, if you want to reduce the space requirements (and installer size) to the maximum, you can manually choose which GStreamer libraries to deploy. Unfortunately, you are on your own on this road, besides using the object file displaying tool: otool. Being a similar technique to deploying a private copy of GStreamer, keep in mind that you should relocate GStreamer too, as explained at the end of this page.
Bear also in mind that GStreamer is modular in nature. Plug-ins are loaded depending on the media that is being played, so, if you do not know in advance what files you are going to play, you do not know which plugins and shared libraries you need to deploy.
Deploy only necessary packages, using the provided ones
This will produce a smaller installer than deploying complete GStreamer, without the added burden of having to manually pick each library. You just need to know which packages your application requires.
|base-system-1.0||JPEG, FreeType, BSD-like, LGPL, LGPL-2+, LGPL-2.1, LibPNG and MIT||Base system dependencies|
|gstreamer-1.0-capture||gstreamer-1.0-core, gstreamer-1.0-encoding||LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer plugins for capture|
|gstreamer-1.0-codecs||base-crypto, gstreamer-1.0-core||BSD, Jasper-2.0, BSD-like, LGPL, LGPL-2, LGPL-2+, LGPL-2.1 and LGPL-2.1+||GStreamer codecs|
|gstreamer-1.0-codecs-gpl||gstreamer-1.0-core||BSD-like, LGPL, LGPL-2+ and LGPL-2.1+||GStreamer codecs under the GPL license and/or with patents issues|
|gstreamer-1.0-core||base-system-1.0||LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer core|
|gstreamer-1.0-dvd||gstreamer-1.0-core||GPL-2+, LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer DVD support|
|gstreamer-1.0-effects||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer effects and instrumentation plugins|
|gstreamer-1.0-net||base-crypto, gstreamer-1.0-core||GPL-3, LGPL, LGPL-2+, LGPL-2.1+ and LGPL-3+||GStreamer plugins for network protocols|
|gstreamer-1.0-playback||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer plugins for playback|
|gstreamer-1.0-system||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL, LGPL-2+ and LGPL-2.1+||GStreamer system plugins|
|gstreamer-1.0-visualizers||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL-2+||GStreamer visualization plugins|
|gstreamer-1.0-encoding||gstreamer-1.0-core, gstreamer-1.0-playback||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer plugins for encoding|
|gstreamer-1.0-editing||gstreamer-1.0-core, gstreamer-1.0-devtools||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer libraries and plugins for non linear editing|
|gstreamer-1.0-devtools||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer developers tools|
|gstreamer-1.0-libav||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer plugins wrapping ffmpeg|
|gstreamer-1.0-net-restricted||base-crypto, gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer plugins for network protocols with potential patent issues in some countries|
|gstreamer-1.0-codecs-restricted||gstreamer-1.0-core||LGPL and LGPL2+||GStreamer restricted codecs with potential patent issues in some countries|
|base-crypto||base-system-1.0||LGPL and LGPL2+||Cryptographic libraries|
Relocation of GStreamer in OS X
In some situations we might need to relocate GStreamer, moving it to a different place in the file system, like for instance when we are shipping a private copy of GStreamer with our application.
Location of dependent dynamic libraries.
On Darwin operating systems, the dynamic linker doesn't locate dependent dynamic libraries using their leaf name, but instead it uses full paths, which makes it harder to relocate them as explained in the DYNAMIC LIBRARY LOADING section of dyld's man page:
Unlike many other operating systems, Darwin does not locate dependent dynamic libraries via their leaf file name. Instead the full path to each dylib is used (e.g. /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib). But there are times when a full path is not appropriate; for instance, may want your binaries to be installable in anywhere on the disk.
We can get the list of paths used by an object file to locate its dependent dynamic libraries using otool:
$ otool -L /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Commands/gst-launch-1.0 /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Commands/gst-launch-1.0: /System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation (compatibility version 150.0.0, current version 550.43.0) /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/0.10/x86/lib/libgstreamer-1.0.0.dylib (compatibility version 31.0.0, current version 31.0.0) /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/0.10/x86/lib/libxml2.2.dylib (compatibility version 10.0.0, current version 10.8.0) ...
As you might have already noticed, if we move GStreamer to a different
folder, it will stop working because the runtime linker won't be able to
gstreamer-1.0 in the previous location
This full path is extracted from the dynamic library install name , a path that is used by the linker to determine its location. The install name of a library can be retrieved with otool too:
$ otool -D /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Libraries/libgstreamer-1.0.dylib /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Libraries/libgstreamer-1.0.dylib: /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/0.10/x86/lib/libgstreamer-1.0.0.dylib
Any object file that links to the dynamic library
locate it, as we saw previously with
Since working exclusively with full paths wouldn't let us install our
binaries anywhere in the path, the linker provides a mechanism of string
substitution, adding three variables that can be used as a path prefix.
At runtime the linker will replace them with the generated path for the
prefix. These variables are
@rpath, described in depth in the DYNAMIC LIBRARY
For our purpose we will use the
@executable_path variable, which is
replaced with a fixed path, the path to the directory containing the
@loader_path variable can't be used in our scope, because it will
be replaced with the path to the directory containing the mach-o binary
that loaded the dynamic library, which can vary.
Therefore, in order to relocate GStreamer we will need to replace all
can be done using
Relocation of the binaries
As mentioned in the previous section, we can use
install_name_tool in combination with
otool to list all paths
for dependant dynamic libraries and modify them to use the new location.
However GStreamer has a huge list of binaries and doing it manually would
be a painful task. That's why a simple relocation script is provided
which you can find in cerbero's repository
cerbero/tools/osxrelocator.py). This scripts takes 3 parameters:
directory: the directory to parse looking for binaries
old_prefix: the old prefix we want to change (eg:
new_prefix: the new prefix we want to use (eg:
When looking for binaries to fix, we will run the script in the following directories:
$ osxrelocator.py MyApp.app/Contents/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/Current/lib /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ @executable_path/../Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ -r $ osxrelocator.py MyApp.app/Contents/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/Current/libexec /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ @executable_path/../Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ -r $ osxrelocator.py MyApp.app/Contents/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/Versions/Current/bin /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ @executable_path/../Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ -r $ osxrelocator.py MyApp.app/Contents/MacOS /Library/Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ @executable_path/../Frameworks/GStreamer.framework/ -r
Adjusting environment variables with the new paths
The application also needs to set the following environment variables to help other libraries finding resources in the new path:
You can use the following functions:
The results of the search are