avtp

Audio Video Transport Protocol (AVTP) Plugin

The AVTP plugin implements typical Talker and Listener functionalities that can be leveraged by GStreamer-based applications in order to implement TSN audio/video applications.

Dependencies

The plugin uses libavtp to handle AVTP packetization. Libavtp source code can be found in https://github.com/AVnu/libavtp as well as instructions to build and install it.

If libavtp isn't detected by configure, the plugin isn't built.

The application/x-avtp mime type

For valid AVTPDUs encapsulated in GstBuffers, we use the caps with mime type application/x-avtp.

AVTP mime type is pretty simple and has no fields.

gPTP Setup

The Linuxptp project provides the ptp4l daemon, which synchronizes the PTP clock from NIC, and the pmc tool which communicates with ptp4l to get/set some runtime settings. The project also provides the phc2sys daemon which synchronizes the PTP clock and system clock.

The AVTP plugin requires system clock is synchronized with PTP clock and TAI offset is properly set in the kernel. ptp4l and phc2sys can be set up in many different ways, below we provide an example that fullfils the plugin requirements. For further information check ptp4l(8) and phc2sys(8).

In the following instructions, replace $IFNAME by your PTP capable NIC interface. The gPTP.cfg file mentioned below can be found in /usr/share/ doc/linuxptp/ (depending on your distro).

Synchronize PTP clock with PTP time:

$ ptp4l -f gPTP.cfg -i $IFNAME

Enable TAI offset to be automatically set by phc2sys:

$ pmc -u -t 1 -b 0 'SET GRANDMASTER_SETTINGS_NP \
	clockClass 248 clockAccuracy 0xfe \
	offsetScaledLogVariance 0xffff \
	currentUtcOffset 37 leap61 0 leap59 0 \
	currentUtcOffsetValid 1 ptpTimescale 1 \
	timeTraceable 1 frequencyTraceable 0 timeSource 0xa0'

Synchronize system clock with PTP clock:

$ phc2sys -f gPTP.cfg -s $IFNAME -c CLOCK_REALTIME -w

The commands above should be run on both AVTP Talker and Listener hosts.

With clocks properly synchronized, applications using the AVTP plugin should use GstSytemClock with GST_CLOCK_TYPE_REALTIME as the pipeline clock.

Clock Reference Format (CRF)

Even though the systems are synchronized by PTP, it is possible that different talkers can send media streams which are out of phase or the frequencies do not exactly match. This is partcularly important when there is a single listener processing data from multiple talkers. The systems in this scenario can benefit if a common clock is distributed among the systems.

This can be achieved by using the avtpcrfsync element which implements CRF as described in Chapter 10 of IEEE 1722-2016. avtpcrfcheck can also be used to validate that the adjustment conforms to the criteria specified in the spec. For further details, look at the documentation for the respective elements.

Traffic Control Setup

FQTSS (Forwarding and Queuing Enhancements for Time-Sensitive Streams) can be enabled on Linux with the help of the mqprio and cbs qdiscs provided by the Linux Traffic Control. Below we provide an example to configure those qdiscs in order to transmit a CVF H.264 stream 1280x720@30fps. For further information on how to configure these qdiscs check tc-mqprio(8) and tc-cbs(8) man pages.

On the host that will run as AVTP Talker (pipeline that generates the video stream), run the following commands:

Configure mpqrio qdisc (replace $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID by an unused handle ID):

 $ tc qdisc add dev $IFNAME parent root handle $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID mqprio \
     num_tc 3 map 2 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 \
     queues 1@0 1@1 2@2 hw 0

Configure cbs qdisc (replace $CBS_HANDLE_ID by an unused handle ID):

 $ tc qdisc replace dev $IFNAME parent $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID:1 \
     handle $CBS_HANDLE_ID cbs idleslope 27756 sendslope -972244 \
     hicredit 42 locredit -1499 offload 1

Also, the plugin implements a transmission scheduling mechanism that relies on ETF qdisc so make sure it is properly configured in your system. It could be configured in many ways, below follows an example.

 $ tc qdisc add dev $IFNAME parent $CBS_HANDLE_ID:1 etf \
     clockid CLOCK_TAI delta 500000 offload

No Traffic Control configuration is required at the host running as AVTP Listener.

Capabilities

The avtpsink and avtpsrc elements open AF_PACKET sockets, which require CAP_NET_RAW capability. Also, avtpsink needs CAP_NET_ADMIN to use ETF. Therefore, applications must have those capabilities in order to successfully use these elements. For instance, one can use:

 $ sudo setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin+ep <application>

Applications can drop these capabilities after the sockets are open, after avtpsrc or avtpsink elements transition to PAUSED state. See setcap(8) man page for more information.

Elements configuration

Each element has its own configuration properties, with some being common to several elements. Basic properties are:

  • streamid (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay, avtpaafdepay, avtpcvfdepay, avtpcrfsync, avtpcrfcheck): Stream ID associated with the stream.

  • ifname (avtpsink, avtpsrc, avtpcrfsync, avtpcrfcheck): Network interface used to send/receive AVTP packets.

  • dst-macaddr (avtpsink, avtpsrc): Destination MAC address for the stream.

  • priority (avtpsink): Priority used by the plugin to transmit AVTP traffic.

  • mtt (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay): Maximum Transit Time, in nanoseconds, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • tu (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay): Maximum Time Uncertainty, in nanoseconds, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • processing-deadline (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay, avtpsink): Maximum amount of time, in nanoseconds, that the pipeline is expected to process any buffer. This value should be in sync between the one used on the payloader and the sink, as this time is also taken into consideration to define the correct presentation time of the packets on the AVTP listener side. It should be as low as possible (zero if possible).

  • timestamp-mode (avtpaafpay): AAF timestamping mode, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • mtu (avtpcvfpay): Maximum Transmit Unit of the underlying network, used to determine when to fragment a CVF packet and how big it should be.

Check each element documentation for more details.

Running a sample pipeline

The following pipelines uses debugutilsbad "clockselect" element to force the pipeline clock to be GstPtpClock. A real application would programmatically define GstPtpClock as the pipeline clock (see next section). It is also assumes that gst-launch-1.0 has CAP_NET_RAW and CAP_NET_ADMIN capabilities.

On the AVTP talker, the following pipeline can be used to generate an H.264 stream to be sent via network using AVTP:

 $ gst-launch-1.0 clockselect. \( clockid=ptp \
     videotestsrc is-live=true ! clockoverlay ! x264enc ! \
     avtpcvfpay processing-deadline=20000000 ! \
     avtpcrfsync ifname=$IFNAME ! avtpsink ifname=$IFNAME \)

On the AVTP listener host, the following pipeline can be used to get the AVTP stream, depacketize it and show it on the screen:

 $ gst-launch-1.0 clockselect. \( clockid=ptp avtpsrc ifname=$IFNAME ! \
     avtpcrfcheck ifname=$IFNAME ! avtpcvfdepay ! \
     vaapih264dec ! videoconvert ! clockoverlay halignment=right ! \
     queue ! autovideosink \)

Pipeline clock

The AVTP plugin elements require that the pipeline clock is in sync with the network PTP clock. As GStreamer has a GstPtpClock, using it should be the simplest way of achieving that.

However, as there's no way of forcing a clock to a pipeline using gst-launch-1.0 application, even for quick tests, it's necessary to have an application. One can refer to GStreamer "hello world" application, remembering to set the pipeline clock to GstPtpClock before putting the pipeline on "PLAYING" state. Some code like:

 GstClock *clk = gst_ptp_clock_new("ptp-clock", 0);
 gst_clock_wait_for_sync(clk, GST_CLOCK_TIME_NONE);
 gst_pipeline_use_clock (GST_PIPELINE (pipeline), clk);

Would do the trick.

Disclaimer

It's out of scope for the AVTP plugin to verify how it is invoked, should a malicious software do it for Denial of Service attempts, or other compromises attempts.

avtp

(from GStreamer Bad Plug-ins)

Audio Video Transport Protocol (AVTP) Plugin

The AVTP plugin implements typical Talker and Listener functionalities that can be leveraged by GStreamer-based applications in order to implement TSN audio/video applications.

Dependencies

The plugin uses libavtp to handle AVTP packetization. Libavtp source code can be found in https://github.com/AVnu/libavtp as well as instructions to build and install it.

If libavtp isn't detected by configure, the plugin isn't built.

The application/x-avtp mime type

For valid AVTPDUs encapsulated in GstBuffers, we use the caps with mime type application/x-avtp.

AVTP mime type is pretty simple and has no fields.

gPTP Setup

The Linuxptp project provides the ptp4l daemon, which synchronizes the PTP clock from NIC, and the pmc tool which communicates with ptp4l to get/set some runtime settings. The project also provides the phc2sys daemon which synchronizes the PTP clock and system clock.

The AVTP plugin requires system clock is synchronized with PTP clock and TAI offset is properly set in the kernel. ptp4l and phc2sys can be set up in many different ways, below we provide an example that fullfils the plugin requirements. For further information check ptp4l(8) and phc2sys(8).

In the following instructions, replace $IFNAME by your PTP capable NIC interface. The gPTP.cfg file mentioned below can be found in /usr/share/ doc/linuxptp/ (depending on your distro).

Synchronize PTP clock with PTP time:

$ ptp4l -f gPTP.cfg -i $IFNAME

Enable TAI offset to be automatically set by phc2sys:

$ pmc -u -t 1 -b 0 'SET GRANDMASTER_SETTINGS_NP \
	clockClass 248 clockAccuracy 0xfe \
	offsetScaledLogVariance 0xffff \
	currentUtcOffset 37 leap61 0 leap59 0 \
	currentUtcOffsetValid 1 ptpTimescale 1 \
	timeTraceable 1 frequencyTraceable 0 timeSource 0xa0'

Synchronize system clock with PTP clock:

$ phc2sys -f gPTP.cfg -s $IFNAME -c CLOCK_REALTIME -w

The commands above should be run on both AVTP Talker and Listener hosts.

With clocks properly synchronized, applications using the AVTP plugin should use GstSytemClock with GST_CLOCK_TYPE_REALTIME as the pipeline clock.

Clock Reference Format (CRF)

Even though the systems are synchronized by PTP, it is possible that different talkers can send media streams which are out of phase or the frequencies do not exactly match. This is partcularly important when there is a single listener processing data from multiple talkers. The systems in this scenario can benefit if a common clock is distributed among the systems.

This can be achieved by using the avtpcrfsync element which implements CRF as described in Chapter 10 of IEEE 1722-2016. avtpcrfcheck can also be used to validate that the adjustment conforms to the criteria specified in the spec. For further details, look at the documentation for the respective elements.

Traffic Control Setup

FQTSS (Forwarding and Queuing Enhancements for Time-Sensitive Streams) can be enabled on Linux with the help of the mqprio and cbs qdiscs provided by the Linux Traffic Control. Below we provide an example to configure those qdiscs in order to transmit a CVF H.264 stream 1280x720@30fps. For further information on how to configure these qdiscs check tc-mqprio(8) and tc-cbs(8) man pages.

On the host that will run as AVTP Talker (pipeline that generates the video stream), run the following commands:

Configure mpqrio qdisc (replace $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID by an unused handle ID):

 $ tc qdisc add dev $IFNAME parent root handle $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID mqprio \
     num_tc 3 map 2 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 \
     queues 1@0 1@1 2@2 hw 0

Configure cbs qdisc (replace $CBS_HANDLE_ID by an unused handle ID):

 $ tc qdisc replace dev $IFNAME parent $MQPRIO_HANDLE_ID:1 \
     handle $CBS_HANDLE_ID cbs idleslope 27756 sendslope -972244 \
     hicredit 42 locredit -1499 offload 1

Also, the plugin implements a transmission scheduling mechanism that relies on ETF qdisc so make sure it is properly configured in your system. It could be configured in many ways, below follows an example.

 $ tc qdisc add dev $IFNAME parent $CBS_HANDLE_ID:1 etf \
     clockid CLOCK_TAI delta 500000 offload

No Traffic Control configuration is required at the host running as AVTP Listener.

Capabilities

The avtpsink and avtpsrc elements open AF_PACKET sockets, which require CAP_NET_RAW capability. Also, avtpsink needs CAP_NET_ADMIN to use ETF. Therefore, applications must have those capabilities in order to successfully use these elements. For instance, one can use:

 $ sudo setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin+ep <application>

Applications can drop these capabilities after the sockets are open, after avtpsrc or avtpsink elements transition to PAUSED state. See setcap(8) man page for more information.

Elements configuration

Each element has its own configuration properties, with some being common to several elements. Basic properties are:

  • streamid (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay, avtpaafdepay, avtpcvfdepay, avtpcrfsync, avtpcrfcheck): Stream ID associated with the stream.

  • ifname (avtpsink, avtpsrc, avtpcrfsync, avtpcrfcheck): Network interface used to send/receive AVTP packets.

  • dst-macaddr (avtpsink, avtpsrc): Destination MAC address for the stream.

  • priority (avtpsink): Priority used by the plugin to transmit AVTP traffic.

  • mtt (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay): Maximum Transit Time, in nanoseconds, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • tu (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay): Maximum Time Uncertainty, in nanoseconds, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • processing-deadline (avtpaafpay, avtpcvfpay, avtpsink): Maximum amount of time, in nanoseconds, that the pipeline is expected to process any buffer. This value should be in sync between the one used on the payloader and the sink, as this time is also taken into consideration to define the correct presentation time of the packets on the AVTP listener side. It should be as low as possible (zero if possible).

  • timestamp-mode (avtpaafpay): AAF timestamping mode, as defined in AVTP spec.

  • mtu (avtpcvfpay): Maximum Transmit Unit of the underlying network, used to determine when to fragment a CVF packet and how big it should be.

Check each element documentation for more details.

Running a sample pipeline

The following pipelines uses debugutilsbad "clockselect" element to force the pipeline clock to be GstPtpClock. A real application would programmatically define GstPtpClock as the pipeline clock (see next section). It is also assumes that gst-launch-1.0 has CAP_NET_RAW and CAP_NET_ADMIN capabilities.

On the AVTP talker, the following pipeline can be used to generate an H.264 stream to be sent via network using AVTP:

 $ gst-launch-1.0 clockselect. \( clockid=ptp \
     videotestsrc is-live=true ! clockoverlay ! x264enc ! \
     avtpcvfpay processing-deadline=20000000 ! \
     avtpcrfsync ifname=$IFNAME ! avtpsink ifname=$IFNAME \)

On the AVTP listener host, the following pipeline can be used to get the AVTP stream, depacketize it and show it on the screen:

 $ gst-launch-1.0 clockselect. \( clockid=ptp avtpsrc ifname=$IFNAME ! \
     avtpcrfcheck ifname=$IFNAME ! avtpcvfdepay ! \
     vaapih264dec ! videoconvert ! clockoverlay halignment=right ! \
     queue ! autovideosink \)

Pipeline clock

The AVTP plugin elements require that the pipeline clock is in sync with the network PTP clock. As GStreamer has a GstPtpClock, using it should be the simplest way of achieving that.

However, as there's no way of forcing a clock to a pipeline using gst-launch-1.0 application, even for quick tests, it's necessary to have an application. One can refer to GStreamer "hello world" application, remembering to set the pipeline clock to GstPtpClock before putting the pipeline on "PLAYING" state. Some code like:

 GstClock *clk = gst_ptp_clock_new("ptp-clock", 0);
 gst_clock_wait_for_sync(clk, GST_CLOCK_TIME_NONE);
 gst_pipeline_use_clock (GST_PIPELINE (pipeline), clk);

Would do the trick.

Disclaimer

It's out of scope for the AVTP plugin to verify how it is invoked, should a malicious software do it for Denial of Service attempts, or other compromises attempts.

Name Classification Description
avtpaafdepay Codec/Depayloader/Network/AVTP Extracts raw audio from AAF AVTPDUs
avtpaafpay Codec/Payloader/Network/AVTP Payload-encode Raw audio into AAF AVTPDU (IEEE 1722)
avtpcrfcheck Filter/Network/AVTP Check if the AVTP presentation time is synchronized with clock provided by a CRF stream
avtpcrfsync Filter/Network/AVTP Synchronize Presentation Time from AVTPDUs so they are phase-locked with clock provided by CRF stream
avtpcvfdepay Codec/Depayloader/Network/AVTP Extracts compressed video from CVF AVTPDUs
avtpcvfpay Codec/Payloader/Network/AVTP Payload-encode compressed video into CVF AVTPDU (IEEE 1722)
avtpsink Sink/Network Send AVTPDUs over the network
avtpsrc Src/Network Receive AVTPDUs from the network

Subpages:

avtpaafdepay – Extracts raw audio from AAF AVTPDUs

avtpaafpay – Payload-encode Raw audio into AAF AVTPDU (IEEE 1722)

avtpcrfcheck – Check if the AVTP presentation time is synchronized with clock provided by a CRF stream

avtpcrfsync – Synchronize Presentation Time from AVTPDUs so they are phase-locked with clock provided by CRF stream

avtpcvfdepay – Extracts compressed video from CVF AVTPDUs

avtpcvfpay – Payload-encode compressed video into CVF AVTPDU (IEEE 1722)

avtpsink – Send AVTPDUs over the network

avtpsrc – Receive AVTPDUs from the network

GstAvtpBaseDepayload

GstAvtpBasePayload

GstAvtpCrfBase

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