Since the pads play a very important role in how the element is viewed by the outside world, a mechanism is implemented to describe the data that can flow or currently flows through the pad by using capabilities. Here, we will briefly describe what capabilities are and how to use them, enough to get an understanding of the concept. For an in-depth look into capabilities and a list of all capabilities defined in GStreamer, see the Plugin Writers Guide.
Capabilities are attached to pad templates and to pads. For pad templates, it will describe the types of media that may stream over a pad created from this template. For pads, it can either be a list of possible caps (usually a copy of the pad template's capabilities), in which case the pad is not yet negotiated, or it is the type of media that currently streams over this pad, in which case the pad has been negotiated already.
A pad's capabilities are described in a
object. Internally, a
will contain one or more
that will describe one media type. A negotiated pad will have
capabilities set that contain exactly one
structure. Also, this structure will contain only
fixed values. These constraints are not
true for unnegotiated pads or pad templates.
As an example, below is a dump of the capabilities of the "vorbisdec" element, which you will get by running gst-inspect vorbisdec. You will see two pads: a source and a sink pad. Both of these pads are always available, and both have capabilities attached to them. The sink pad will accept vorbis-encoded audio data, with the media type "audio/x-vorbis". The source pad will be used to send raw (decoded) audio samples to the next element, with a raw audio media type (in this case, "audio/x-raw"). The source pad will also contain properties for the audio samplerate and the amount of channels, plus some more that you don't need to worry about for now.
Pad Templates: SRC template: 'src' Availability: Always Capabilities: audio/x-raw format: F32LE rate: [ 1, 2147483647 ] channels: [ 1, 256 ] SINK template: 'sink' Availability: Always Capabilities: audio/x-vorbis
Properties are used to describe extra information for capabilities. A property consists of a key (a string) and a value. There are different possible value types that can be used:
Basic types, this can be pretty much any
GType registered with Glib. Those
properties indicate a specific, non-dynamic value for this
property. Examples include:
An integer value (
the property has this exact value.
A boolean value (
the property is either TRUE or FALSE.
A float value (
the property has this exact floating point value.
A string value (
the property contains a UTF-8 string.
A fraction value (
contains a fraction expressed by an integer numerator and
Range types are
GTypes registered by
GStreamer to indicate a range of possible values. They are
used for indicating allowed audio samplerate values or
supported video sizes. The two types defined in GStreamer
An integer range value
GST_TYPE_INT_RANGE): the property
denotes a range of possible integers, with a lower and an
upper boundary. The "vorbisdec" element, for
example, has a rate property that can be between 8000 and
A float range value
GST_TYPE_FLOAT_RANGE): the property
denotes a range of possible floating point values, with a
lower and an upper boundary.
A fraction range value
GST_TYPE_FRACTION_RANGE): the property
denotes a range of possible fraction values, with a
lower and an upper boundary.
A list value (
property can take any value from a list of basic values
given in this list.
Example: caps that express that either a sample rate of 44100 Hz and a sample rate of 48000 Hz is supported would use a list of integer values, with one value being 44100 and one value being 48000.
An array value (
property is an array of values. Each value in the array is a
full value on its own, too. All values in the array should be
of the same elementary type. This means that an array can
contain any combination of integers, lists of integers, integer
ranges together, and the same for floats or strings, but it can
not contain both floats and ints at the same time.
Example: for audio where there are more than two channels involved
the channel layout needs to be specified (for one and two channel
audio the channel layout is implicit unless stated otherwise in the
caps). So the channel layout would be an array of integer enum
values where each enum value represents a loudspeaker position.
GST_TYPE_LIST, the values in an
array will be interpreted as a whole.